Programs that specialize in the care of the teeth and associated structures in the oral cavity including the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the teeth and gums.
Programs that are concerned with maintaining or improving the health of the eyes and their appropriate functioning as the organs of sight.
Programs that are staffed by specialists in the field of medicine that is concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community. Practitioners of family and community medicine provide comprehensive medical care including preventive services with particular emphasis on the family unit, in which the physician's continuing responsibility for health care is not limited by the patient's age or gender, nor by a particular organ system or disease entity.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who provide comprehensive preventive, diagnostic and treatment services for individuals who have diseases or injuries which affect the internal organs and require nonsurgical intervention. General internists provide continuing comprehensive care for common and complex multisystem illnesses in ambulatory care as well as hospital settings. Internists often function as primary care physicians who are the patient's initial point of contact with the health care system and who assume ongoing responsibility for maintaining the health of their patients and for providing treatment in case of illness including consultation with specialists when required.
Programs that are based on the premise that the body is a vital mechanical organism in which structural and functional states are of equal importance and that the body is able to rectify toxic conditions when it has favorable environmental circumstances and satisfactory nutrition. Treatment focuses on the manipulation of the body to restore structural integrity, but also utilizes other measures including medication, surgery and proper diet.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who are concerned with the physical, emotional and social health of infants, children and adolescents from birth to young adulthood. Pediatricians have advanced training in the biological, social and environmental factors that have an influence on a developing child and have expertise in diagnosing and treating the acute and chronic diseases that are common to individuals in this age range.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who provide comprehensive preventive, diagnostic, and treatment services for individuals who have diseases of or injuries to the feet. Conditions treated may include bacterial and fungal infections, skin and nail disorders, benign and cancerous tumours, congenital and acquired foot deformities and foot problems caused by illnesses such as diabetes, arthritis and cardiovascular diseases. Treatment includes use of surgical procedures, casting or other forms of immobilization and the prescription of corrective devices, oral and locally injected medication and physical therapy. Included are services provided by podiatrists, chiropodists and other foot care specialists. Foot care may also be provided by nurses. In most Canadian provinces (such as Ontario), podiatrists are health professional specialists with a Doctor of Podiatric Medicine degree whereas chiropodists are college-trained professionals who provide practical foot care in Canada, particularly for older adults. In some Canadian provinces, such as Manitoba, New Brunswick and Saskatchewan, "podiatrist" is the term used for someone who has the qualifications of a chiropodist.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who provide comprehensive preventive, diagnostic and treatment services for people who have injuries or illnesses that were caused by participation in an athletic event or other recreational activity.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who diagnose conditions which require a surgical intervention and provide preoperative, operative and postoperative care for surgical patients.
Programs that allow health care professionals to evaluate, diagnose and treat patients in remote locations using telecommunications technology. Telemedicine permits two-way, real time interactive communication between the patient, and the physician or other practitioners at a distant site. Some programs may also incorporate other forms of communication including transfer of medical information such as CT scans, MRIs, ultrasound studies, radiographic images and pathology images to medical personnel at another site for review and analysis. The technology is also being used in other related areas of practice (e.g., mental health, substance use disorders, gambling) as well as for teaching and remote caregiving purposes.
The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles.