[ Browse by Service Category : Disabilities and Health Conditions : Sub-Topics of Health Conditions (75) ]

AIDS/HIV

Individuals who are at risk or have tested positive for infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), or have developed AIDS which is caused by the HIV virus and impairs the function of the body's immune system leaving affected individuals vulnerable to illnesses that would not otherwise occur.

[ View Programs and Services (2) ]

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

A syndrome, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, that is marked by muscular weakness and atrophy with spasticity and increased action of the reflexes due to degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, medulla and cortex.

[ View Programs and Services (1) | Related Topics ]

Asthma

A disorder of the bronchial system that is characterized by laboured breathing accompanied by wheezing that is caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane. Recurrence and severity of attacks is influenced by secondary factors, mental or physical fatigue, exposure to fumes, endocrine changes at various periods in life and emotional situations.

[ View Programs and Services (1) | Related Topics ]

Back Problems

Acute or chronic problems involving the back, the muscles of the back or their attachments in the lower lumbar, lumbosacral or sacroiliac areas, or the vertebral column.

[ View Programs and Services (1) ]

Brain Disorders

Any of a variety of conditions that are characterized by significant impairment of brain tissue and resultant loss of brain function including degenerative illnesses (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, stroke and other cerebrovascular accidents), genetic variations or mutations that affect the development and functioning of the brain either in utero or following birth, traumatic brain injury, post infection damage, brain tumours, and permanent damage that occurs as a result of seizures, substance toxicity or other disorders as well as conditions affecting the brain that are present prior to birth.

[ Sub-Topics | View Programs and Services (5) | Related Topics ]

Cancer

Any of a broad group of malignant neoplasms which are either carcinomas which have their origin in epithelial tissues or sarcomas which develop from connective tissues and those structures which had their origin in mesodermal tissues (the muscular, skeletal, circulatory, lymphatic and urogenital systems and the linings of body cavities). Cancer is invasive and tends to metastasize to new sites spreading directly into surrounding tissues or through the lymphatic or circulatory systems.

[ Sub-Topics | View Programs and Services (16) ]

Celiac Disease

An intestinal malabsorption syndrome that causes malnutrition and results in a wide variety of symptoms including abdominal pain and distention, diarrhea, constipation, anemia, bone and joint pain, depression and headaches.

[ View Programs and Services (1) ]

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

A group of diseases that includes asthma, bronchitis, emphysema and bronchiectasis which involve obstruction of an individual's airflow. The conditions may be chronic and irreversible or reversible but recurrent.

[ View Programs and Services (1) | Related Topics ]

COVID-19

A respiratory illness caused by the coronavirus first identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in 2019 which likely originally emerged from an animal source, has spread person-to-person in many locales as well as to other countries around the world and has been identified as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Symptoms include mild to severe respiratory illness with fever, cough and difficulty breathing. Those most at risk from the virus are older adults and people with pre-existing health conditions.

[ View Programs and Services (7) ]

Crohn's Disease

A regional inflammation of the ileum or the intestines.

[ View Programs and Services (1) ]

Dementia

An acquired reduction in mental capacity that is characterized by impairment of memory, judgment and intellectual functioning which is often accompanied by behavioural disturbances.

[ View Programs and Services (7) | Related Topics ]

Diabetes

A disorder in which the pancreas produces too little insulin with the result that the body is unable to adequately metabolize sugar. Principal symptoms are elevated blood sugar, sugar in the urine, excessive urine production and increased food intake. Complications of diabetes if left untreated include low resistance to infections leading to a susceptibility to gangrene, cardiovascular and kidney disorders, disturbances in the electrolyte balance and eye disorders, some of which may lead to blindness.

[ View Programs and Services (8) ]

Down Syndrome

A variety of congenital intellectual disability that is marked by sloping forehead, presence of epicanthal folds, gray or very light yellow spots at the periphery of the iris, short broad hands with a single palmar crease, a flat nose or absent bridge, low-set ears and generally dwarfed physique.

[ View Programs and Services (1) ]

Epilepsy

A recurrent paroxysmal disorder of cerebral function that is characterized by sudden, brief interruptions in or complete loss of consciousness, motor activity and/or sensory phenomena. The seizures are caused by disruptions in the electrical and physiochemical activity of the brain.

[ View Programs and Services (1) | Related Topics ]

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

A continuum of permanent birth defects caused by maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, the effects of which can include physical problems and problems with behaviour and learning. A person with FASD might have abnormal facial features, small head size, shorter than average height, low body weight, poor coordination, hyperactivity, difficulty paying attention, poor memory, difficulty in school (especially with math), learning disabilities, speech and language delays, intellectual disability or low IQ, poor reasoning and judgment skills, sleep and sucking problems as a baby, vision and hearing problems and/or problems with the heart, kidneys or bones. Different terms are used to describe FASDs depending on the type of symptoms. Included are Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), which represents the severe end of the FASD spectrum and is characterized by abnormal facial features, growth problems and central nervous system (CNS) problems; Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) which is characterized by intellectual disabilities and problems with behaviour and learning; and Alcohol Related Birth Defects (ARBD) which is characterized by problems with the heart, kidneys or bones and/or with hearing. Alcohol Related Birth Defects (ARBD) was previously known as Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE).

[ View Programs and Services (1) ]

Heart Disease

Any of a number of pathological conditions that affect the heart and the blood vessels of the heart.

[ View Programs and Services (3) ]

Influenza

An acute, contagious respiratory infection that is characterized by sudden onset, high fever, chills, headache, muscle soreness, and sometimes prostration. Nasal discharge, cough and sore throat are also common; and stomach symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea may also occur, but are more often seen in children than adults. Most people recover from the flu in a few days to less than two weeks. People age 65 years and older, people of any age with chronic medical conditions (such as asthma, diabetes, or heart disease), pregnant individuals, and young children are more likely to get complications from influenza.

[ View Programs and Services (2) ]

Lupus Erythematosus

Lupus, in its cutaneous form, is a chronic disease of unknown etiology which causes skin lesions on the face, neck and upper extremities. In its systemic form, lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease of the connective tissue, of unknown etiology which affects the skin, joints, kidneys, nervous system and mucous membranes. A characteristic butterfly rash may be present across the cheeks and the bridge of the nose.

[ View Programs and Services (1) ]

Menopause

The permanent cessation of fertility and menstrual activity, usually between the ages of 40 and 58 but most often after age 45. Menopause typically occurs in three stages: perimenopause, the span of time preceding menopause when the menstrual cycle is irregular and menopausal symptoms (decreased fertility, hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness and mood swings) are often experienced; menopause, the point in time when an individual has experienced their last period which is generally established retrospectively when the individual has gone 12 consecutive months without a period; and postmenopause, the years following menopause after the ovaries have become inactive during which menopausal symptoms typically decrease.

[ View Programs and Services (1) ]

Multiple Sclerosis

A chronic, slowly progressive disease of the central nervous system in which the myelin sheath which covers the nerves hardens, resulting in difficulties with muscle control, involuntary movements of the eyeballs, speech problems and tremor. Multiple sclerosis is marked by a history of remissions and exacerbations.

[ View Programs and Services (1) | Related Topics ]

Osteoporosis

A condition, usually seen in people who are elderly, which is marked by increased porosity or weakness of the bones. The condition becomes apparent when the osteoporosis has progressed to the stage at which a bone fractures in a situation that would not normally damage the skeleton.

[ View Programs and Services (1) ]

Parasites/Worms/Lice

Any of a variety of pathological conditions that are caused by organisms like protozoa, worms, ticks, fleas, lice, the microscopic mite Sarcoptes scabei which causes scabies or other parasites that live within, upon or at the expense of another organism, known as the host, without contributing to the survival of the host.

[ View Programs and Services (2) ]

Parkinson's Disease

One of a group of conditions called motor system disorders which result from loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. Symptoms of PD include tremor (trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face), rigidity (stiffness of the limbs and trunk); bradykinesia (slowness of movement) and postural instability (impaired balance and coordination). As these symptoms become more pronounced, patients may have difficulty walking, talking, or completing other simple tasks. The disease usually affects people over the age of 50, can be difficult to diagnose accurately and may require brain scans or laboratory tests to rule out other conditions.

[ View Programs and Services (2) | Related Topics ]

People with Chronic Illnesses

Individuals who have serious medical conditions that have persisted over a long period of time or are subject to frequent recurrences, are treatable but rarely cured completely and require persistent self-management behaviours. Chronic illnesses may be life-long in duration and/or progressive in nature; and many are marked by sudden flare-ups that can be caused by stress or other factors. Medicine and other treatments can often help people with chronic illness lead a normal life, although many require long-term care.

[ View Programs and Services (2) ]

Pregnancy/Birth Problems

Any of a number of complications during pregnancy or delivery which negatively affect the health of the mother or child.

[ View Programs and Services (1) ]

Rabies

An acute infectious disease of warm-blooded mammals, especially carnivores, that is characterized by involvement of the central nervous system which results in paralysis and finally death. Symptoms include general malaise, depression of spirits or intense excitement and aggressiveness, respiratory problems, swelling of the lymph nodes near the wound, muscular spasms, fever, vomiting, unusual saliva and the presence of serum protein in the urine. The disease is usually transmitted to humans through bites from affected animals such as raccoons, dogs, foxes and bats.

[ View Programs and Services (1) ]

Sexually Transmitted Infections

Any of a variety of infections that are acquired as a result of sexual activity with an individual who is infected.

[ View Programs and Services (2) ]

Sleep Disorders

Any of a variety of conditions in which the patient has difficulty falling or staying asleep, abnormal behaviours during sleep or trouble staying awake during the day.

[ View Programs and Services (2) ]

Spinal Cord Injuries

Trauma or damage to the column of nervous tissue that extends from the medulla to the second lumbar vertebra in the spinal canal. All nerves to the trunk and limbs are issued from the spinal cord, and it is the centre of reflex action containing the conducting paths to and from the brain.

[ View Programs and Services (1) | Related Topics ]

Stroke

A sudden loss of consciousness followed by paralysis which is caused by hemorrhage into the brain, formulation of a blood clot or mass of undissolved matter in the blood that occludes an artery, or rupture of an extracerebral artery causing hemorrhaging in the membranes which enclose the brain and spinal cord.

[ View Programs and Services (3) | Related Topics ]

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

The completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well or virtually well infant.

[ View Programs and Services (2) ]

Swallowing Disorders

Any of a variety of pathological or congenital conditions that make it difficult for the individual to swallow food normally. Symptoms include a lump in the throat, hoarseness, a sore throat, pain during swallowing, avoidance of specific foods or liquids and repeated attacks of pneumonia due to unconscious aspiration of food into the lungs.

[ View Programs and Services (1) ]

Tuberous Sclerosis

A rare genetic disorder, sometimes called "tuberous sclerosis complex", that is characterized by the growth of numerous noncancerous (benign) tumors that are most commonly seen in the brain, eyes, kidneys, heart, lungs and skin though any part of the body can be affected. Symptoms can range from mild to severe, depending on the size or location of the overgrowth. The condition often affects the brain, causing seizures, behavioral problems such as hyperactivity and aggression, and intellectual disability or learning problems. Some children have the characteristic features of autism spectrum disorder, a developmental disorder that affects communication and social interaction. Benign brain tumors can also develop in people with tuberous sclerosis complex and some can cause serious or life-threatening complications.

[ View Programs and Services (1) | Related Topics ]

Ulcerative Colitis

A type of inflammatory bowel disease that affects the large intestine (colon) and rectum. The disease usually begins in the rectal area and may eventually extend through the entire large intestine. Repeated swelling (inflammation) leads to thickening of the wall of the intestine and rectum with scar tissue. Death of colon tissue or severe infection may occur with severe disease. Symptoms include abdominal pain and cramping that generally disappear following a bowel movement, gurgling or other abdominal sounds, fever, rectal pain and weight loss.

[ View Programs and Services (1) ]

The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles.