[ Browse by Service Category : Health Screening/Diagnostic Services : Sub-Topics of Disease/Disability Specific Screening/Diagnosis (22) ]

Cancer Detection

Programs that offer any of a variety of tests which are used to identify people who have some form of cancer which, if caught in an early stage, may be treated with a higher probability of success.

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Dementia Evaluation

Programs that offer a variety of tests to establish the presence of Alzheimer's disease, Pick's disease or other conditions which involve loss of memory, deterioration of intellectual functioning, disorientation and other similar symptoms.

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Dental Screening

Programs that provide dental examinations to detect tooth decay and periodontal problems, and oral hygiene information; but which refer out for cleaning, fillings, extractions and other necessary dental care.

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Driving Evaluation

Programs that evaluate the motor and cognitive functioning of elderly individuals or people with disabilities to determine the person's ability to drive. Some programs may also recommend vehicle modifications that will enable the individual to continue to drive.

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Ergonomic Evaluations

Programs that conduct comprehensive workplace evaluations to identify ergonomic risk factors and determine the most effective strategy for controlling or eliminating the potentially harmful effects of force, repetition, awkward postures, static positions, contact stress, vibration and cold temperatures. The evaluations consider work activities, repetitive movement patterns, work station design, workplace seating, work tools and equipment and the posture of workers.

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Evaluation for Assistive Technology

Programs that assess the current ability to function of people who have disabilities and prescribe or recommend the most appropriate assistive technology product to meet their individual needs including communication/learning aids, control and signaling aids, daily living aids, hearing augmentation aids, mobility aids, prosthetic/orthotic/seating devices, recreational aids, speech aids and/or visual/reading aids.

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Eye Examinations

Programs that conduct a series of tests which measure an individual's visual acuity, identify refractive errors that cause poor vision and check for eye diseases such as glaucoma; and prescribe corrective lenses in situations where there are vision problems. Eye examinations are offered by optometrists and ophthalmologists and are usually available through mobile eye clinics.

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Geriatric Assessment

Programs, generally staffed by an interdisciplinary team comprising a geriatrician, a nurse, a social worker and a pharmacist, that evaluate the functional ability, physical health, cognitive and mental health and socioenvironmental situation of older adults, particular those who are frail or chronically ill, to identify health-related problems, develop plans for treatment and follow-up, coordinate care, determine the need for long-term care, and ensure the optimal use of health care resources. Beneficial outcomes may include greater diagnostic accuracy, improved functional and mental status, reduced mortality, decreased use of nursing facilities and acute care hospitals and increased satisfaction with care.

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Hearing Screening

Programs that offer hearing threshold tests for the purpose of identifying individuals whose ability to perceive sound falls outside the normal range. People who fail the screening test need an in-depth evaluation by an audiologist.

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Hepatitis Testing

Programs that administer tests which identify individuals who have been exposed to hepatitis A, B or C by detecting the presence of associated antigens, antibodies or genetic material (DNA). Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver caused by a variety of agents including viral infection (hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and delta agents), bacterial invasion and physical and chemical agents. Hepatitis A and delta agent hepatitis are spread primarily from person to person via the fecal-oral route, but may occur by contact with water or food contaminated by the virus. Hepatitis B and C are spread by blood and serum-derived fluids and by direct contact with body fluids. Depending on the type of hepatitis involved, screening may be particularly recommended for persons who have travelled or worked in countries with high rates of infection, sexually active homosexual men, injecting and non-injecting illegal drug users, persons who work with infected primates in a laboratory setting, persons with chronic liver disease, persons with clotting disorders, blood bank and dialysis workers, dental hygienists, and other members of health care teams who come into contact with blood, body fluids or body tissue.

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HIV Testing

Programs that offer HIV tests which are used to identify individuals who have been infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and are at risk for developing AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) or which are used to measure progression of the disease in people known to be infected. The most common HIV screening test is the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) which most frequently uses peripheral blood drawn from the arm or a finger as a sample, but can also be conducted using serum, oral fluids or urine. Repeatedly reactive EIA tests are confirmed using the Western blot or the immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The most common test that is used to measure disease progression is the PCR (polymeraise chain reaction) or viral load test. Many programs that provide HIV testing also provide pre-testing and post-test counselling which includes information about AIDS/HIV, reducing risks for HIV transmission, emotional support to help the individual deal with the testing process and test results, and information about and referral to other AIDS-related services.

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Nutrition Assessment Services

Programs that evaluate an individual's nutritional history and dietary intake and develop a plan which ensures that the person's nutritional needs are met. The evaluation includes a review of the individual's food habits and preferences, an assessment of his or her feeding skills and eating problems and an analysis of biochemical and anthropometric variables including the person's height and weight and the fat content of his or her body.

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Pulmonary Function Screening

Programs that employ a spiroscope to measure the amount of available lung capacity an individual uses during respiration.

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Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening

Programs that identify individuals who have contracted gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes or other infections that are spread by sexual contact and diagnose their conditions. The procedure includes visual examinations, blood tests and analyses of discharge or samples taken from lesions.

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The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles.